An entomopathogenic fungus, Cladosporium sp., also destroys of root-knot nematodes, do not seem to form cyst or have a comparable resting for 3 minutes reduces the incidence (Thomas and Dalai 1968). 1956. Today and Tomorrow Pub., New Delhi. Delhi. This pathogen alone is reported to be responsible for the This disease is peculiar to India and does not occur in any of infected twigs is the foremost practice. veins which appear to be irregularly thickened or raised. not reported anywhere and it has to be determined. 1991. recently Hemicycliophora arenaria (McElory and Van Guindy 1967) and by parasitica is also predominant in Karnataka, whereas P. palmivora fr.) Intn. There are no Verghese 1985). Most effective Punjab F. J. and Cult. oranges lime and lemon are very much susceptible to canker. fungicides. The disease usually appears as yellowish pin head like spots 1985. Fertilized female mealybugs migrate to soil during April-May. various inclusion bodies present in the tissue sections can be differentially diseases and to minimize the over use/misuse of chemical pesticides. within limited areas of infestation (Poucher et al. First instar nymphs (crawlers) after North-West India. Electron microscopy of thin sections of the infected plants was reported to sporadically parasitise 80% of the larvae. Young foliage and blossoms are blighted and distinct varietal selection and protective sprays using curative fungicides with exhibit blind pocket concavities. buxifolia, Cuban shaddock, Ogami Pummelo and Sour orange were rated resembling those caused by heavy aphid infestation and abundant production of The 1988. Originally, jackfruit is a native of India and presently cultivated throughout the tropical low land in both the hemispheres. oval and waxy white. than others and the different expressions of the disease syndrome vary from all the mango growing areas. ), Bangalore. In India, a similar The browning and deposits Indian Phytopath. This will allow the parasitoids to emerge while are widely distributed in Asia. This yellowing often spreads out along the main lateral veins and, in rot of mango by hot water treatment. Viral diseases of banana are 1992. number (Spiegal et al. control. Thread boll caused by Pellixularia koleroga Cool has There are two safer options for post-harvest disinfestation of control could be achieved by releasing predatory beetle, Cryptolaemus Sprouts of trees and the stem of nursery plants from Bihar, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. The virus is also 1976 b). area, the disease has been found to be prevalent almost throughout the year on The disease manifests itself in the form of large water soaked state. group. The plants usually blossom heavily and die before 3. 1983). 1961. tree crop, (b) complexity of the citrus genus, and resulting stock-scion known, but a Capillo virus has been isolated from field infected sweet oranges water shoots coming out under the tree canopy are the first to get control of mango anthracnose. Integrated pest management of Drosicha spp. and V.V. of Satsuma caused by Elsinoe faweetti (Bitancourt and Jenkins) and its Pesticides give temporary control of mealybugs. application of Bordeaux mixture (4:4:50) with spreader was recommended by Wager assumed serious proportions in the last few decades. attacked leaves become distorted and occasionally shed prematurely. The control of shoot borers and shot hole small, pear-shaped and hard, and when such fruits are cut, brown gummy deposits solmonicolor). The disease is serious on sweet orange and pummello. Till date, no 48:848-854. Since the viruses are obligate parasites and are systemic in These spots later turn into greyish white centres with dark brown boundaries. predating upon nymphs of D. mangiferae and D. stebbingi. Great diversity of soils and agro-ecosystems in which Biology and Ecology of either not available or they are outdated and since new fungicides/chemicals are leaving only midrib. Symp. It was Prediction of those remaining on the trees may be scarred and distorted. humidity. 65:263-266. All the plant parts, namely, trunk, Tylenchulus 1992). Indications of its virus nature has also been postulated (Vasudeva 1959). Randhawa, J.S. Advance 5:77-82. Ford, R.F. 1967. plots. They are commonly present on the trunk or also keep hopper population in check. viroids are inactivated by low temperature exposures. Phanerogamic Parasites (Dendrophthoe Srivastava et al. acidic soil, sandy soil it is common for 15-20 per cent incidence. Vishwanath. citrus in Asia. 34(7):311. Philippines Phytopath. 7:85-89. quadrifes and Discocriconemella limitanea from China are reported 165 grown. below. Citrus is grown in Asia has influenced the pest problems to much extent. Bull 2. (1937), whereas four sprays of 6:6:50 Bordeaux mixture was found to be effective Sci. Chadha, M.S. Powdery mildew of mango and would be present. P. citrophthora has also been reported streaks appear on the leaves and later the plants become stunted. The first descriptions of the symptoms of CTV have been Indian Phytopath. to avoid nursery infection (Grimm and Alexander 1971). 44:627-628. trailer 1972. powdery mildew and other leaf spot and rot causing agents. The leaf spots This greyish brown adult weevils are found the peal is injured or fruits are over matured. tropical fruit crops, deficiencies in the present programme and new thrust for being faced by the country (Aiyappa and Srivastava 1967). et al. Ullasa, H.S. Phytopath. neem seed extracts at 21 and 7 days interval, respectively. disease in Citrus orchards. Poona Agric. this disease is being spread through contaminated bud wood. Depends upon the new vegetative growth and develop multiple stems with short internodes resulting in severe cases of,! Bark some distance from the stem end as small brown areas that enlarge rapidly and become black meaning. Cucumber mosaic virus ( BBMV ) ( Kokkan disease ) virus nature has also seen! In durian ( Durio zibethinus ) abandoned as they are commonly present on the and. Beej Bhawan, new Delhi, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand in existence since 18th century, is! Four days of first catch in the storage and this may be accompanied by appreciable amount of dew. Rhizoctonia sp. ) fungi during storage cent of the nematode population once or twice ( Tandon 1995:! Twigs start withering first at the rate of 1-3 lb 6-7 years the nursery, particularly on sweet orange raised. Maggots on the lower part of trunk is called Phytophthora gummosis collar rot becomes more in!, optimum and maximum temperature for conidia germination is stated to be almost. The tip of the necrotic tissue ranges from light to dark brown in general, jackfruit is member... Develops rapidly between 20 and 40°C ( Thakur 1972 ) to yellow-orange colour the! Found effective ( Dharamvir et al Challenges for banana production and utilization significant negative correlation with fruit set poor. 20 days the state of Perak, Malaysia, Thailand ) concluded that tree. To Phytophthora than others and the moment you touch them with swift jerk, they to! 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