This high-fat layer, known as cream, can then be churned to bring the fat globules together and form butter. American butter is usually around 80 percent fat, although the exact amount varies from brand to brand. Butter fat testing using Gerber method is one of the many quality assurance test procedures carried out in milk. It is a rush of tangy, salty … Its butterfat content is 82%, which … Since production varies, depending on how many nonfat products are sold (which enables the dairy to siphon off the extra cream) and how much milk the cows produce, Straus often freezes its butter for later sale when supplies may be low. -- The Bottom Line: It comes down to personal preference. This mild, sweet butter, made in Hayward, tastes fresh with a slight tang. What Are the Benefits of Ingesting Coconut Oil? The Cremerie Classique crust was flaky but not as crisp and had a buttery flavor. Where Does the Fat Come From in Instant Oatmeal? A 2012 study published in the "Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care" reviewed the overall health of a group of middle-aged rural Swedes. Fred Decker is a trained chef and certified food-safety trainer. Milk fat and butter fat are therefore the same thing, varying only in their concentration. Salted butter typically contains 1-2% salt by weight, or about a 1/4 teaspoon of salt per stick. That is probably because high-fat butter softens and melts faster. We bought all the butters at the same time and immediately put them into self-sealing plastic bags. Beyond butterfat, there is another important distinction between American and Irish butters—the U.S. has a much stricter grading system than Ireland does when it comes to assessing butter. It's not subtle. -- 4. Shortages in cream supplies and higher demand can drive prices up, as was the case in 1998 and early 1999. Celles sur Belle. Butters … Land O' Lakes butter is my go-to butter for baking," explained recipe developer Leah Klein of City Living Boston. -- The Bottom Line: Cremerie Classique had the best balance of rich butter flavor and performance. Consumers can't even count on sell-by dates, since those are not required by law and and can be arbitrarily set by the manufacturer. Butterfat definition is - the natural fat of milk and chief constituent of butter consisting essentially of a mixture of glycerides (such as those derived from butyric, capric, caproic, and caprylic acids). A Chronicle survey of prices in November and December showed vast differences between months and between stores. Supermarkets like Safeway, which sells Lucerne butter, will offer discounts on their house brand to beat out competitors like Challenge or Land O' Lakes. Plenty of luxe types of butter exist on the market, but time-honored supermarket staples like Land O'Lakes can totally get the job done, especially in a utilitarian baking context. " In January 2000, multiple component pricing became the milk pricing system for about 90 percent of federal order milk production. Vermont Cultured Salted Butter. The company started making the premium butter a couple of years ago at the urging of some French bakers. While that changes its quality slightly, the savings can sometimes be as much as $1 per pound. . The biggest difference in Kerrygold butter starts with the milk. The people who run the Safeway dairy labs in Walnut Creek agreed to send our set of unlabeled butter samples to an independent lab they regularly contract with. -- 2. Our cultured butter also has less moisture than sweet cream butter, which also boasts great results in cooking and baking. Butterfat contains about 3% trans fat, which is slightly less than 0.5 grams per US tablespoon. The difference is purely one of custom, rather than science, since milk and butter contain exactly the same kind of fat. Land O' Lakes, from Minnesota, was characterized as the classic American butter. Along with 80% butterfat, the average butter sold in the United States contains about 16-18% water and 2-4% additional components, such as milk solids and sometimes salt. Butterfat, also called Milk Fat, natural fatty constituent of cows’ milk and the chief component of butter. Grass-fed milk has a richer taste and is creamier, thus why Kerrygold butter has … One camp prefers a high-moisture butter to get the crispness and lift that comes when water turns to steam and explodes the fat globules that surround it. One butter executive advises buying butter in November when it is cheaper and freezing it. Cremerie Classique. "It always has the best results." (Tie) Lucerne (Safeway) and Land O' Lakes. Other butters tasted included Clover Stornetta, Challenge, Horizon, Straus Family Creamery, Organic Valley, Tillamook, Luvpak Danish, Challenge European, Plugra and Beurre President. -- The Bottom Line: Land O' Lakes makes the best beurre blanc. -- The Bottom Line: Cremerie Classique was the tasters' favorite. This test was so interesting that we ended up repeating it four times. If you like rich, butter flavor and prefer a courser cake, go for the Straus. Not all butter is created equal! This portable charger is $14 and can charge your phone 6... How a virtual movie club has helped me survive the pandemic, Silliker Laboratories of Northern California. The Land O' Lakes crust was bland, but had a crisp flake and more height. But the lab results showed salt was less than .05 percent -- about the same as the other butters. Branded as “France’s #1 Butter,” Président has a high fat content—and that’s why we’re … We whisked them into beurre blanc and baked them into pound cake. 3. Prices generally drop again in January. The lipids or fats point into the center of the globule, while the phosphates or proteins like the watery liquid outside of the globules. It's like a sponge, and the longer it sits around in a grocery store the more flavors it picks up. Distribution is limited to a few Western states. 1. Abroad, the minimum is 82 percent; here, it’s 80 percent; everywhere, it’s lower for salted butter. The packaging on some sticks of unsalted butter boasts their contents have an 85% butterfat content. Eventually, the milk solids in the butter sink to the bottom and begin to brown. The fat in butter is much more concentrated than it is in milk, averaging approximately 80 percent of the butter's weight. He's held positions selling computers, insurance and mutual funds, and was educated at Memorial University of Newfoundland and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Butter (German: "die Butter") is made from butterfat in the cream of cows, sheep, and goats (and sometimes other mammals). The Straus sauce looked like coarse pepper had been sprinkled over it. Gerber Butterfat Content Determination Method. Looking to discover the difference cultured butter can make? One butter, Challenge, tasted so salty that we were sure it had been mislabeled as sweet butter. Market pressures also affect prices, industry executives say. We used the butterfat and moisture levels, which are listed in an accompanying chart, to determine which butters to test in cooking. The only marking on samples were numbers, and each butter was tested twice. It’s created when cream is vigorously churned, which causes its solids (butterfat) and liquids (buttermilk) to separate, and ultimately results in the firm product we all know and love. Butter is a natural food made from milk, while margarine is a processed food made from chemically altered vegetable oils. At the same time, the water content in the butter is evaporating, and what’s left is pure butterfat. Although butterfat is typically 82% in Europe, in the US most butter is actually 80% (US dictated minimum). Very wrong. The butterfat (also known as milk fat) is found in small, round globules surrounded by a membrane of phospholipids and lipoproteins. Lucerne surprised us with its mild dairy notes and fresh taste, which some described as almost floral. The theory here is that the fat coats the tongue, canceling out the sharpness of the other ingredients in the sauce. The crust test illuminates a great debate among some bakers. Butter is almost entirely fat, as it is made by separating out the fat and then whipping it to encourage it to coalesce into a mass. Irish butter brands usually follow the European standard of producing butter with an 82% butterfat content, though there are variations. As you noted, the nutrition facts counts for Land O' Lakes at 80% butterfat and Kerrygold at 82% butterfat are the same. Straus Family Creamery, a favorite of Chez Panisse's Alice Waters, had no pull date. Butter tends to be cheaper in November than in December, when more people bake. Butter is a commodity, and wholesale prices are set largely through trading at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Maybe that extra two percent really pushed this butter from being good (like it’s honorable mention cousin) to great. The best news may be that it is a relative bargain. Because Straus butter is made from cows that graze and isn't ultra- pasteurized or cultured, it is particularly volatile. European-style butter is slow churned and cultured which creates a creamier texture with less moisture. If you're both a health-conscious diner and a cookbook enthusiast, you may have noticed that the terminology in your cookbooks changes over time. Butterfat. It was so rich, in fact, that it masked all the other flavors. The Cremerie Classique cake was tender, but not quite as light as the Land O' Lakes cake. The standards for the minimum amount of butterfat in butter are different in Europe and America. In 2013, protein was almost double the price of butterfat, $3.30 per pound to $1.66 per pound. Plugra, in particular, suffered from this. Others prefer the rich mouthfeel and flavor of high-fat butter, especially when it comes to croissants and puff pastry. Somebody walking by with strong perfume on or even a cart with three crabs in it can affect the flavor," says Marc Halperin, culinary director at San Francisco's Center for Culinary Development. The Straus cake was rich in butter flavor and had a course, rustic texture. It's light-colored, mild and slightly grassy tasting. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care: High Dairy Fat Intake Related to Less Central Obesity -- A Male Cohort Study With 12 Years' Follow-up, European Journal of Nutrition: The Relationship Between High-Fat Diary Consumption and Obesity, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease. The Land O' Lakes sauce, a pale lemon yellow, had the best balance, allowing the flavors of shallot, vinegar and wine to blend nicely into a whole. Cremerie Classique is made by Raven Creamery in Portland, OR, a small dairy employing just 11 people. -- 5. Butterfat ranged from the legal minimum of 80 percent to nearly 86 percent. Many researchers are now revisiting the earlier assumptions about dairy fat and its relationship to health concerns, in search of a better and more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms involved. How Is Fat Separated From Milk to Make Skim Milk? Butterfat composition and types of butter. The fat content of whole milk can vary among individual cows, among breeds or even from month to month as the animal's fodder changes. Twelve years after the initial survey, participants with a high intake of dairy fat had the lowest rate of central obesity, while those with the lowest consumption of dairy fat had the highest rates. European butter contains about 82 percent butterfat, while ours tops out at 80 percent. Whipping cream can have between 30 and 35%, and heavy cream has at least 36%. Certainly, Plugra fresh from the Pennsylvania factory might have beaten our favorites in the taste test, but we wanted to compare the sort of butter available to shoppers off the grocer's shelf. Although our favorite was Cremerie Classique, coming in at about 82 percent butterfat, the second place winners -- Lucerne and Land O' Lakes -- just met the U.S. Department of Agriculture standard of 80 percent. Does Butter Really Make Everything Better? But, bottom line: It didn't do well in our tasting. In 2015, the shift started – th… The remainder consists of water and a small quantity of milk solids. Here are the results: . The more fat, the less balanced the sauce. Because of butter’s low melting point, the dough tends to spread during baking before the structure sets. Saturated Fats Are Primarily Found in What Groups? All of the samples we tried had a variety of dates, many extending into 2001. Surprisingly, a high butterfat content wasn't the key to the best-tasting butter. Other sources include butter or anhydrous milkfat. Clarified butter is butter with the water and milk proteins removed, leaving a composition of 99-100% pure butterfat. The three cakes we baked couldn't have been more different. The Cremerie Classique sauce had what looked like fine pepper sprinkled throughout and a light nutty butter flavor. Generations of health professionals have advised the public to limit their consumption of butter and other full-fat dairy products because saturated fat consumption had been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity. From 2000 to 2014, the average annual producer protein price was higher than butterfat every year. Before that, butter is 16-17% water and 1-2% milk proteins (also known as milk solids). For a series of performance tests, we selected the butter with the highest fat content (Straus Family Creamery, at almost 86 percent), the butter with the lowest fat content and the highest water content (Land O' Lakes with 80 percent fat and almost 18 percent water) and our favorite table butter, Cremerie Classique (82 percent fat and about 16 percent moisture). Near perfection. This rich butter is made in Ireland and has a pale yellow color, because it is made from grass-fed cow’s milk, free of antibiotics and hormones, with 82 percent butterfat. The strong flavor appealed to some for eating at the table but others thought it would be too rich for baking. The Chronicle spent several weeks exploring 15 widely available brands of unsalted butter. Whole milk usually has around 3.5% butterfat. Once baked, the Straus crust was the flatest, and was soft and just slightly crisp. When mixed with shortening, it should produce a crust with even better flake. Butter is a dairy product made from milk or cream. Butterfat ranged from the legal minimum of 80 percent to nearly 86 percent. We ate them plain and spread them on bread. Irish butter's superiority in one creamy secret. Are you still trying to unlock the secret behind a perfectly flakey pie crust? While American butter contains just 80% butterfat, European butter has been churned for a longer period of time, giving it 82% butterfat. I live in Canada, where a breadth of butterfat options are available, but butters with butterfat ratios above 80 tend to be quite pricey. Even Land O' Lakes, the only national brand, and house brands like Safeway's Lucerne, crept over $4. Sweet Cream Butter. Each butter may have been exposed to any number of problems in shipping, storage, stock rotation or packaging, all of which can affect the delicate taste. But the labels for Straus Family Creamery (a Northern California dairy) at 85% butterfat and Vermont Creamery at 88% butterfat are also the same: both read 12 grams of fat and 110 calories per 1 T. serving. In the Land O' Lakes cake, the steam created by the extra moisture and the lighter butterfat made for a lighter cake. The Cremerie Classique sauce had a slightly sharper flavor from the wine and vinegar reduction. They all begin with whole milk, which consists of three components: water, milk solids, and butterfat. Modern cookbooks turn that around, referring to butter by its milk fat content. To make clarified butter, you simmer unsalted butter in a pan over low heat. Although The Chronicle's Best Way column recommends using equal parts of shortening and butter in a pie crust, we prepared all-butter crusts for our test. If you think all butters are pretty much the same, you would be wrong. The Difference Between Salted and Unsalted Butter The only real difference between salted and unsalted butter is literally the salt: All butter is made from milkfat in cream and contains at least 80 percent milkfat, 18 percent water, and 2 percent solids (mainly protein and salt), explains Jen Giambroni, a dairy expert with Real California Milk. If you allow unpasteurized milk to stand, it separates into cream (mostly butterfat) and skim milk (mostly water). After much discussion with baking and science experts, we concluded that the high amount of fat in the Straus cake kept it from developing as tender a texture. The high-fat Straus butter made a sauce that was thicker, deeper in color and decidedly buttery. One butter, Challenge, tasted so salty that we were sure it had been mislabeled as sweet butter. We used the average of the two scores. Many of the butters received low scores because they had off-flavors which we surmised they had picked up during transport or on the supermarket shelf. This European-style butter from Raven Creamery Co. in Portland, Ore. is sweet, with hints of vanilla and tang and lots of old- fashioned butter flavor. But the Land O' Lakes crust seemed a good choice for sturdier uses like pot pies. It is a simpler modification of the Babcock method with special butyrometers for various dairy products. Clear butterfat rises to the top of melted butter and may be poured off, leaving the albuminous curd and water that favour the growth of organisms promoting rancidity; thus, anhydrous butterfat does not become rancid as readily as butter and can be stored unrefrigerated for several months. Lower fat content means that the butter contains more water, but that's not necessarily a bad thing, especially for baking. It has nearly 85 percent butterfat vs. approximately 80 percent for regular (American) butter. That extra 2 percent is usually made up of fat, which helps the butter become the delectable, spreadable texture you know and love. Most breeds average 3.5 percent to 4 percent butter fat. We sent them to a laboratory for scientific analysis. The Cremerie Classique cake seemed like a good compromise, with a lighter texture. Président. Vivien Straus attributes that to the vagaries of her small dairy. Anchor Like Kerrygold, Anchor is yellow because of the grass the cows are eating, compared to the white butter derived from the milk of corn-fed cows. Because the percentage of milk solids differs in each butter, and those solids become dark brown particles in the sauce, each sample looked different. "Fat really absorbs moisture molecules quite well. -- 1. The differences in taste and performance amazed our team of tasters. The remaining traces of milk are rinsed out of the butterfat in cold water and the mass is compressed into a solid lump or brick of butter. It had a deep, butter flavor and a powerful, nutty aroma. However, the dairy plans to put pull dates on its new packages in the future. Decker wrote for the Saint John, New Brunswick Telegraph-Journal, and has been published in Canada's Hospitality and Foodservice magazine. Land O’Lakes European butter contains 82 percent, while American butters are only required to contain 80. . -- The Bottom Line: The flavor and aroma of Straus made it a clear winner. European style butter contains more butterfat than the above two varieties. 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