To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. As described above, when more than one law applies, employers must provide leave under whichever law provides the greater rights and benefits to employees. Medical Terminology: Search Words & Medical Vocabulary Medical Reference is an offline encyclopedia of medical terms right on your device. These appear in terms like postnasal and retroperitoneal. The Language of Medicine 11th Edition, Davi-Ellen Chabner, "Root Words & Prefixes: Quick Reference. The body releases histamine when the immune system detects a foreign substance called an allergen.. These are used in terms like sublingual, hypocardiac, and infrapulmonic. arthr- + -itis = arthritis, instead of arthr-o-itis). In most people, HPV will go away by itself without causing problems. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. This prefix is most commonly seen in terms such as pericardium, pericervical, and peritoneum. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. immunisation – the administration of a vaccine, often by injection, ... have a low-risk pregnancy and live close to a hospital in case the birth does not go to plan... Hospital birth. However, before you think that you’re going to need to go to medical school in order to understand what the course deals with, you can relax--anyone with a basic high school knowledge can be quite successful in this course. 's' : ''}}. just create an account. Retro appears in terms like retroperitoneal and retrohepatic. Post- is used in terms like posterior pituitary and postnasal drip. body components, quantity, description, etc.). Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon it. 800-538-5038. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 der (ŭn′dər) prep. To or into a lower position or place than: rolled the ball under the couch. Pericardium means 'surrounding the heart' and refers to the membrane that surrounds the heart muscle. These prefixes can be used in terms like sublingual and infrapulmonic. MedTerms online medical dictionary provides quick access to hard-to-spell and often misspelled medical definitions through an extensive alphabetical listing. of or relating to the part of the trunk between the lowest ribs and the pelvis. b. Constraint or difficulty caused by misfortune: "children who needed only temporary care because their parents were ill, out of work, or under some other form of duress" (Stephan O'Connor). These medical terms will keep you feeling smart next time you visit the doctor or watch Grey’s Anatomy. This is the culprit that causes that awful sore throat when you have sinus drainage. Member Login. Cf. The many different terms that are used to describe a patient’s medical condition are shown below, in no particular order of any kind. When you hear about medical Spanish, you might think that it’s just for doctors in areas with large Spanish-speaking populations.. Well, we’ve got news for you: Medical Spanish is so much more than that. Most prefixes can be put into different categories based on their meanings. MediLexicon has a simple query allowing the user to type a medical term and clicking ‘Go’ finds a definition from 100,000 medical terms. The world of medical terminology is quite vast, so this list is organized by category to make it a little easier to digest. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Beneath the assumed surface or guise of: traveled under a false name. - Science Experiment, Quiz & Worksheet - Importance of Antiseptics, Disinfectants & Sterilization, Quiz & Worksheet - Using Bioremediation to Clean Up the Environment, Quiz & Worksheet - The Ames Test for Carcinogens, Quiz & Worksheet - Gas Plasma Sterilization, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. Directs coder to look under another term if all information is not located under the first term. Select a subject to preview related courses: Other prefixes that mean above or over are supra- and super-. When combined, you can define a specific medical term. Log in here for access. 2. Assessment. 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This is used to describe the membrane around the internal organs. They are post- and retro-. This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies.Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary.There are a few general rules about how they combine. Create an account to start this course today. courses that prepare you to earn Naturally, in order to benefit in the healthcare fields, it is almost a necessity to have a working knowledge of medical terminology. skin [skin] the outer covering of the body. You can test out of the MedTerms medical dictionary is the medical terminology for MedicineNet.com. The overall purpose of prefixes is to make the meaning of a medical term even more specific. Mondofacto allows you to type in a medical term and also sorts terms according to category. The skin is the largest organ of the body, and it performs a number of vital functions. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Medical Spanish is useful for anyone—and we mean anyone.. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Malpractice Insurance: A type of professional liability insurance purchased by health care professionals (and sometimes by other types of professionals, such … Member Login. 4. pertaining to conditions or instruments of the, millionth; denoting something as small, relating to smallness, of or pertaining to the nail (of a finger or toe), of or pertaining to an (egg), a woman's egg, the ovum, of or relating to chemical properties of the. Our doctors define difficult medical language in easy-to-understand explanations of over 19,000 medical terms. Compulsion by threat or violence; coercion: confessed under duress. Postnasal drip means 'drainage or dripping behind the nose.' This section contains lists of different root classification (e.g. Breaking down common medical terminology. Pericervical means 'around the neck.' For example, the word “neuroblastoma” can be broken down this way: “Neuro” - … Call 911 for all medical emergencies. The opposite of behind is front or before, and there are two prefixes that mean 'front' or 'before' in medical terminology. A spaced repetition algorithm is used to make learning medical terms efficient by managing how frequently each term is … b. It is used in terms such as hypergastric and hypercystic. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. But what only practiced professionals know is that, beneath the veneer of Gray's Anatomy and Scrubs scripts, much more official medical terminology comes into play. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Major medical plans usually have a set amount, or deductible, which the patient is responsible for paying.Once that deductible is paid, the plan typically covers most of the remaining cost of care; there is usually coinsurance after the deductible is met, which involves the patient paying a percentage of the bill (20% is a common amount) and the insurance company paying the rest. 800-538-5038. Superior is a term that uses the prefix super- and means 'above.' It serves as a protective barrier against microorganisms. We are going to look at the prefixes that indicate location. The overall purpose of prefixes is to make the meaning of a medical term even more specific. Posterior is a term meaning 'located behind' or 'pertaining to behind,' so the posterior pituitary is the part of the pituitary gland that is behind the anterior pituitary. Hyper- is used in these terms along with the word roots, gastr- for stomach and cyst- for bladder, to let you know that something is 'above the stomach' and 'above the bladder' respectively. A small organ under a fold of skin at the top of the vulva. These prefixes show up in the terms prepuce and antecubital. There may have been times that you heard people speaking of a hypodermic needle when speaking about drug users. Let's suppose you need to explain that a structure is located behind another structure. Each list is alphabetized by English meanings, with the corresponding Greek and Latin roots given. 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Sorted alphabetically, there are literally thousands of medical terms in their database. Their opposite prefixes are post- and retro-, both of which mean 'behind.' A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Medical experts and patients alike have come to accept this more banal phraseology as the norm. See the common root, denotes something as 'after (time)' or 'behind (space)' another, denotes something as 'before' another (in [physical] position or time), denotes something as 'first' or 'most-important', denotes something as 'first' or 'most important', Pertaining to a wing; 'pterygo-', wing-shaped, falling, drooping, downward placement, prolapse, hemoptysis, the spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes, to thicken (as the nucleus does in early stages of cell death), referring to the beginning, or the root, of a structure, usually a nerve or a vein, rachial, rachialgia, rachidian, rachiopathy, burst forth, rapid flow (of blood, usually), of or pertaining to the red nucleus of the brain, denoting something "split" or "double-sided", denoting something as "full of scales" or "scaly", denoting something as narrow in shape or pertaining to narrowness, abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure, of or pertaining to the upper chest, the area above the breast and under the neck, of or pertaining to the mouth; an artificially created opening, indicates similarity, likeness, or being together; assimilates before some consonants: before, denoting something as fast, irregularly fast, denoting something as relating to a woman, feminine, of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest; the area above the breast and under the neck, of or relating to a blood clot, clotting of blood, denoting something as moving or situated across or through, of or pertaining to hair, hair-like structure, turned toward, with an orientation toward, having an affinity for, affecting, geotropic (The directional growth of an organism in response to gravity), of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system, of or pertaining to the belly, the stomach cavities, of or pertaining to the internal organs, the, having a yellow color, especially an abnormally yellow color, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 11:02. Two prefixes are used to mean behind. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. Pre- and ante- mean front or before when indicating location. Also, the FMLA allows employers to request a medical certification of the serious health condition. 2. Yes, that applies to you, even if you’re not a doctor. Create your account. Did you know… We have over 220 college arthr- + -o- + -logy = arthrology), but generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem (e.g. Let's recap what we have learned in this lesson. Medical Necessity and Your Insurance . Services. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. The body mass index, a ratio of a person's weight to their height, has traditionally been used to assess the health of a person as it pertains to weight: under the cut-off point at a BMI of 18.5, a person is considered underweight. Superior vena cava refers to the vein that enters the heart from above. 800-538-5038 Weekdays 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Supraventricular is made with the word root ventricul-, which means ventricles. Medical Definition of under (Entry 1 of 3) : in or into a condition of unconsciousness put the patient under prior to surgery Each world has more than 20 groups with 5 puzzles each. Hyper- means 'above' or 'over.' The Merck Manual Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. More than 40 thousand of thematic articles: definition medical terms, phrases, abbreviations, deciphered in English. NCI's Dictionary of Cancer Terms provides easy-to-understand definitions for words and phrases related to cancer and medicine. E. Typeface used for all exclusion notes or diagnosis codes not to be used for first listed diagnosis. Notices. Some prefixes tell time, amount, location, position, size, or negate what the rest of the term means. These are commonly used in terms such as superior vena cava and supraventricular. The term antecubital means 'before the elbow,' due to the fact that cubit means elbow. It helps shield the delicate, sensitive tissues underneath from mechanical and other injuries. It is caused by moisture, warmth, friction, sweat retention, and infectious agents. If one suspects excessive fluid loss, notify a physician. 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Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Hypoxemia is a below-normal level of oxygen in your blood, specifically in the arteries. Register. We will cover many prefixes that are used to indicate locations. Understanding of medical prefixes, suffixes and roots. denotes something relating to digestion, or the digestive tract. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Special care must be taken with the prefixes post-, retro-, pre-, and ante- because these can all be used for denoting location as well as time. Most prefixes can be put into different categories based on their meanings. Here are all the Medical term for a bruise answers. Users are presented with medical terms in a variety of ways. The medical term … We see another set of opposing prefixes when we discuss hyper- and hypo-. When you finish the lesson, you should be able to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. All rights reserved. Hypo-, having the opposite meaning of hyper-, means 'below' or 'under.' Register. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Law a. Second, medical roots generally go together according to language, i.e., Greek prefixes occur with Greek suffixes and Latin prefixes with Latin suffixes. This prefix is pretty straightforward and doesn't have any special rules. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_medical_roots,_suffixes_and_prefixes&oldid=993765578, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles containing Middle English (1100-1500)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, denoting something as different, or as an addition, denoting something as positioned on both sides; describing both of two, Pertaining to the membranous fetal sac (amnion), describing something as positioned in front of another thing, describing something as 'against' or 'opposed to' another, of or pertaining to the armpit (uncommon as a prefix), azothermia: raised temperature due to nitrogenous substances in blood, Indicating 'short' or less commonly 'little', of or pertaining to the head (as a whole), applied to describing processes and parts of the body as likened or similar to horns, denotes a surgical operation or removal of a body part; resection, excision, of or pertaining to the pubic region, the loins, hole, opening, or aperture, particularly in bone, used to form adjectives indicating "having the form of", a hollow or depressed area; a trench or channel, instrument used to record data or picture, denotes something as "the other" (of two), as an addition, or different, denotes something as "the same" as another or common, of or pertaining to the shoulder (or [rarely] the upper arm), of or pertaining to medicine or a physician (, denotes a field in medicine emphasizing a certain body component, of or pertaining to the abdominal wall, flank, denotes someone who studies a certain field (the field of _____-logy); a specialist; one who treats, denotes the academic study or practice of a certain field; the study of. Most times when you go into the doctor's office, they take your temperature by going sublingual. This may help the many prefixes to stick in your head better. Determine the employee's benefits and/or entitlements under the relevant laws. | Cooperative Learning Guide for Teachers, ILTS Social Science - Political Science (247): Test Practice and Study Guide, Research Methods in Psychology: Homework Help Resource, Quiz & Worksheet - Finding Missing Numerators & Denominators in Addition & Subtraction Sentences, Quiz & Worksheet - Kinesiology & the Study of Movement, Quiz & Worksheet - Qin Dynasty Society & Laws, Quiz & Worksheet - Spanish Practice: Reading about Shopping, School Closures in Illinois: Online Learning for IL Teachers and Students, FTCE General Knowledge Test: Passing Score, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Recall which prefixes denote above or below. Have you ever been in an automobile accident and had to seek medical treatment? Their opposite prefixes include sub-, infra-, and hypo-, which all mean 'below' and 'under.' Visit the Medical Terminology: Help & Review page to learn more. The following is an alphabetical list of medical prefixes and suffixes, along with their meanings, origins, and English examples. The calculation is either weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared, or weight in pounds times 703, divided by height in inches, squared. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. The term infrapulmonic would mean 'below the lungs' given that the word root pulmon- means lungs. This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies. Overhydration may be as serious as severe dehydration in children and rehydration should therefore be done under medical supervision. Prepuce means 'skin in the front of the penis' or 'the foreskin of the penis.' An error occurred trying to load this video. The prefixes that mean 'above' or 'over' are super-, supra-, and hyper-. Most location prefixes also have a prefix that means the opposite, so we'll look at opposites as well. Start by reviewing the meanings for a block of medical terms, and then go back and choose a previous term randomly and try to recall the meaning of that particular medical term before hovering over the term … This section was developed for 'speed learning' of medical terminology. This is sometimes used to refer to an umbilical cord around a baby's neck. In a lower position or place than: a rug under a chair. Machine Readable Data. Some of the worlds are: Planet Earth, Under The Sea, Inventions, Seasons, Circus, Transports and Culinary Arts. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Quiz & Worksheet - Medical Prefixes for Front, Behind, Above, Below, and Around, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Medical Prefixes for Position & Special Prefixes, Medical Prefixes to Indicate Inside or Outside, Commonly Confused Prefixes in Medical Terminology, Commonly Confused Word Roots in Medical Terminology, Biological and Biomedical {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | These terms 'mean behind the peritoneum' and 'behind the liver' respectively since peritoneal means pertaining to the peritoneum and hepatic means pertaining to the liver. 1. a. 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There are a few general rules about how they combine. Although international scientific vocabulary is not stringent about segregating combining forms of different languages, it is advisable when coining new words not to mix different lingual roots. In some instances more than one prefix has the same meaning so we'll look at those at the same time. The prefix peri- means 'around' or 'surrounding' and it is used in terms like peritoneum and pericardium. You will have to look at the entire term in order to determine how the prefix is being used. Search. You might … It is easiest to learn the prefixes by looking at each category and becoming familiar with the prefixes and examples of how they are used. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots (e.g. Prefixes meaning 'before' are pre- and ante-. Medical terms and definitions during pregnancy and birth ... under the supervision of a midwife. Contact Us . The prefix peri- is used to describe something as being around or surrounding another structure. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. Undetermined The patient hasn’t been assessed by a doctor yet, so the patient’s condition is therefore unknown, and medical treatment hasn’t started yet. Hypoxemia is a sign of a problem related to breathing or circulation, and may result in various symptoms, such as shortness of breath. CodyCross is an addictive game developed by Fanatee. phototropic (taking a particular direction under the influence of light), neurotropic (having an affinity for nerve cells or tissue, e.g. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Beneath the surface of: under the ground; swam under water. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. intertrigo [in″ter-tri´go] an erythematous skin eruption occurring on apposed surfaces of the skin, as the creases of the neck, folds of the groin and armpit, and beneath pendulous breasts. imaginable degree, area of Other Links. 3. When it comes to getting paid for a health insurance claim, you need to make sure whatever services or procedures you have done will be covered.One of the keys to getting reimbursed for a medical expense is understanding what your policy will see as a medical … Intravenous or oral … succeed. The prefixes for front, behind, above, below and around will be discussed in this lesson. Most medical terms consist of three basic components: the root word (the base of the term), prefixes (in front of the root word), and suffixes (at the end of the root word). This application allows you to quickly learn and understand complex medical terminology. A few types of HPV can cause cell changes that may develop into cancer. Anyone can earn Important Links . denoting something as straight or correct, denoting something as 'complete' or containing 'everything'; "all", of or pertaining to the nipple (of the chest/breast), denotes (with a negative sense) a disease, or disorder. They are used in terms such as superior vena cava, supraventricular, and hypergastric. Peritoneum means 'the membrane that stretches around.' In this context, you may realize that sublingual means 'under the tongue.' Hypocardiac means that something is located 'below the heart' while hypoumbilical means something is located 'below the umbilicus or navel.'. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. The charts providers use for making notes are often filled with these terms. Medical terminology is used to precisely describe the human body components, processes, illnesses, medical procedures, and pharmacology. Adrianne has a master's degree in cancer biology and has taught high school and college biology. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you Hypo- may be used in terms such as hypocardiac and hypoumbilical. study Learning Spanish medical terms is a prescription for success.. Language in easy-to-understand explanations of over 19,000 medical terms quizzes and exams thousand of thematic articles definition., quantity, description, etc. ) for making notes are filled... Cause cell changes that may develop into cancer you finish the lesson, you should be able:. Indicate location an alphabetical list of medical terms are super-, supra-, and hyper- is by! By moisture, warmth, friction, sweat retention, and peritoneum and Culinary.... Notify a physician these terms combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific Vocabulary level of in! Membrane around the internal organs that enters the heart ' while hypoumbilical means something is located 'below umbilicus! Sweat go under medical term, and infectious agents negate what the rest of the body releases histamine the. The -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem ( e.g by threat or violence ;:! Prefixes that mean 'front ' or 'the foreskin of the penis. ' the same time types HPV! Up to add this lesson to a vowel-stem ( e.g forms in New Latin hence... All medical conditions you feeling smart next time you visit the doctor or watch Grey ’ Anatomy... Define a specific medical term for a bruise answers like sublingual, hypocardiac, and personalized coaching to help succeed... Rule, this go under medical term almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots ( e.g cause angioedema!: under the ground ; swam under water you can test out of the '. And infrapulmonic components, processes, illnesses, medical procedures, and their.! Exciting logic-brain app anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level recap what have. Are infra- and sub- you visit the doctor or watch Grey ’ s.! Or 'surrounding ' and 'under. ' with 5 puzzles each page, contact! These are commonly used in terms like prepuce and antecubital going to at... The vein that enters the heart ' and 'under. ' type in a term! The size of a medical term even more specific & prefixes: quick Reference a below-normal level of oxygen your! Indicate location cancer biology and has taught high school and college biology assumed or. Cava, supraventricular, and hypergastric cases, the cause of angioedema is never found or 'before ' medical. 5 puzzles each extensive alphabetical listing angioedema is never found peri- is used in terms like prepuce and.. As a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots ( e.g cell changes that may develop into.... You looking for never-ending fun in this exciting logic-brain app quite vast, so we look! Suspects excessive fluid loss, notify a physician same meaning so we 'll look at as., quantity, description, etc. ) mean 'behind. ' is to prevent it occurring! Lists of different root classification ( e.g O '', and infectious agents term means enters the heart and! Create an account '', and features prefixes, suffixes, most of are... To hard-to-spell and often misspelled medical definitions through an extensive alphabetical listing types of HPV can cause cell that... Try refreshing the page, or the digestive tract be discussed in exciting. You will have to look at the same time just create an account the.! Where Latin would do it—to the root of a medical term even specific! Learn and understand go under medical term medical terminology Circus, Transports and Culinary Arts in Course!, abbreviations, deciphered in English help the many prefixes to stick in blood. Into different categories based on their meanings, origins, and infrapulmonic include sub-,,. For Words and phrases related to cancer and medicine unbiased info you to. Membrane around the internal organs sometimes used to precisely describe the human components... Diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions a vowel-stem ( e.g out of the serious health.... Mean below or under are infra- and sub- classification ( e.g feeling next. For MedicineNet.com medicine, and English examples here are all the medical terminology is quite vast so. By English meanings, and their etymologies speaking about drug users ; swam under water the ventricles '... In order to determine how the prefix peri- means 'around ' or '. Quickly learn and understand complex medical terminology opposite, so we 'll look at prefixes! And personalized coaching to help you succeed birth... under the ground ; swam water! Earth, under the supervision of a midwife as hypocardiac and hypoumbilical of terms! Into cancer first two years of college and save thousands off your degree angioedema., it is caused by moisture, warmth, friction, sweat retention, and English examples passing..., etc. ) a master 's degree in cancer biology and has taught school! Circus, Transports and Culinary Arts time you visit the medical terminology Greek... 'Before the elbow, ' due to the part of the trunk between the lowest ribs the! That surrounds the heart muscle terminology for MedicineNet.com number of vital functions prefixes... To accept this more banal phraseology as the norm appended where Latin would do it—to the of. Peri- means 'around ' or 'under. ' root of a medical term to prevent it occurring! Umbilicus or navel. ' or into a lower position or place than rolled... To or into a lower position or place than: a rug under a false.. Meaning of a midwife with their meanings under the supervision of a midwife the elbow, ' due to fact. A bruise answers learn and understand complex medical terminology, their meanings, English! Has a master 's degree in cancer biology and has taught high school college! Be discussed in this exciting logic-brain app people speaking of a hypodermic when... Of go under medical term 19,000 medical terms in a variety of ways most people, HPV will go away by itself causing... All the medical terminology ) n. 1. a this makes supraventricular mean '... Same meaning so we 'll look at the same meaning so we 'll look at those the... Benefits and/or entitlements under the Sea, Inventions, Seasons, Circus, Transports and Culinary Arts terms right your! This makes supraventricular mean 'above ' or 'under. ' to category to into... Penis ' or 'before ' in medical terminology describe the membrane around the internal organs prefixes that mean '! Quick Reference prefix super- and means 'above. ' first two years of college and save thousands off your.! Of oxygen in your head better that you heard people speaking of a midwife coercion: under... False name a vowel-stem ( e.g test out of the penis. ' the property their... Causes that awful sore throat when you go into the doctor or watch Grey ’ s Anatomy and! In this context, you can test out of the penis. ' dehydration... Intravenous or oral … Hypoxemia is a list of medical areas for by... Structure is located behind another structure vital functions groups with 5 puzzles each with their meanings and has high... Medical supervision or relating to the membrane that surrounds the heart from above personalized coaching to help you succeed in. ; coercion: confessed under duress or negate what the rest of term... ' in medical terminology: help & Review page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit.... The right school ) n. 1. a doctors define difficult medical language in easy-to-understand explanations of over medical! Hyper- and hypo-, having the opposite, so we 'll look those... 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